In competency-based education and training, requirements are explicitly defined in terms of collections of skills, knowledge, and abilities (i.e. competencies), each of which is measurable and can be assessed. Every program, course, or lesson is tagged with the competencies it addresses and assesses. When learners take a course, the competencies they achieve are recorded in badges and credentials. A competencybased approach enables professionals to compare the skills they have with the skills they need and find opportunities that efficiently bridge the gaps.